Saturday, May 23, 2020

Character Analysis The Personality of Oedipus Essay

There are many facets of personality of a minor character that authors may utilize to supply contrast to the main character of their work. Some of these contrasts are extremely noticeable and some are not. One such facet is with the use of a neutral character; to not only showcase the main character’s flaws, but so not to detract from the moral of the story. Creon, from the play â€Å"Oedipus the King† by Sophocles is used for both of these reasons. Sophocles wished to show that one cannot escape fate, yet did not want to cloud this issue with a possible coupe against his main character Oedipus. He also showed how, at times one character can act completely irrational, while one remains calm in the face of serious accusations. Creon is the†¦show more content†¦Creon in an astonishing display of â€Å"sound common sense and executive ability† (Peterkin 265), offered marriage to Iocasta, as well as the position of king, to anyone who could solve this riddle and free the country of the suffering inflicted by the Sphinx. Oedipus bested the Sphinx, and claimed the kingdom and his spouse. Although Creon could have remained in power, he proved to be a man of his word. He relinquished the dominant authority in Thebes to Oedipus and seemed to â€Å"have ac-cepted the situation with good grace† (Peterkin 265). After a long established rule as king, a plague afflicted the land. Over the years, Oedipus had â€Å"delegated much of his authority, in complete reliance on his efficiency and dependa-bility† (Peterkin 265) to Creon. In trying to relieve his subjects suffering, Oedipus sends his valued right hand man, Creon, to consult the oracle. Oedipus was hoping to receive some revelation as to why his kingdom was suffering so. Upon his return, Creon prudently wanted to speak privately with Oedipus. During this exchange, Creon is presented as a cautious, yet matter-of-fact kind of person. The King would not hear of a private conversation as he wanted everything to be in the public’s eye, so as not to hide the truth. Creon reveals, as tactfully as possible, that the Gods were angry that King Laios murder went unpunished. This is what was causing the plague to besiegeShow MoreRelatedSigmund Freud s Theory And Criticism1345 Words   |  6 Pagesis written out it may perhaps fill half a page. The analysis setting out the dream-thought underlying it may occupy six, eight or a dozen times as much space† (819). This quote is telling us, as readers, that writing our dreams are simple. It does not take a lot of time to discuss or a lot of space on the paper to write it down. When analyzing the dreams, there are so many hidden meanings, thoughts, and desires. As a result, writing an analysis on the dreams requires a lot more paper, time, andRead MoreOedipus Essay734 Words   |  3 PagesThis analysis of Oedipus’s character shows how Oedipus, the protagonist and the antagonist against himself, dealt with unfortunate situations which sealed his fate. Oedipus was a strange round character that was really interesting and mysterious. Oedipus’s life was a good example of a true Greek tragedy; he worked himself up to be a great king and ultimately in the end he died with only his perception on life. Oedipus was once a man of power who falls impoverished. He goes from having much respectRead MoreAnalysis Essay: Oedipus the King1017 Words   |  4 Pages Casual Analysis Essay: Oedipus the King Sophocles play Oedipus the King has endured for over two thousand years. The plays lasting appeal may be attributed to the fact it encompasses all the classical elements of tragedy as put forth by Aristotle in Poetics nearly a century before it was written. According to Aristotle, tragedy needs to be an imitation of life according to the law of probability or necessity. Tragedy is serious, complete, and has magnitude. It must have a beginning, middleRead MoreThe Literary Analysis Of Fosters Oedipus At Colonus782 Words   |  4 Pagesan absolute monarch. 3. Foster’s political interpretation of Sophocles’ tragedy Oedipus at Colonus revolves around the ongoing conflict between Athens and Sparta at the time of it’s creation. More specifically, the city state of Athens is represented by Oedipus as Theseus guards him from the potential evils of Creon and other such villains (these characters representing Sparta within the tragedy), and guiding Oedipus to his final resting place. This period, the end of Athenian greatness, is markedRead MoreLacan once said, in an unpublished seminar, â€Å"the Oedipus Complex is a dream of Freud† (Felman,1600 Words   |  7 Pagesan unpublished seminar, â€Å"the Oedipus Complex is a dream of Freud† (Felman, 1034). It is a questionable theory and a so-called ‘dream’ because Sigmund Freud developed the Oedipus complex in such a way that allowed him to stand as an example of his own theory. It begins with what Freud would call ‘introspection’; th e analysis of one’s self. He developed terms to use in his psychoanalysis; terms that divide the self and attempt to explain aspects of the human personality. Adding to the questionabilityRead MoreOedipus in Sophocles Oedipus Rex and Young Colonel Sartoris Snopes in William Faulkners Barn Burning: A Comparative Analysis of Characters1034 Words   |  4 Pagesï » ¿When attempting to compare the characters and the lots of Oedipus in Oedipus Rex and Young Colonel Sartoris Snopes in William Faulkners Barn Burning, there are a number of immediate and salient points of similarity for one to consider. One of the principle points of similarities between these two is related to their personalities both male characters are prone to fits of action which they can only fully understand (if at all) in hindsight. Another is the fact that the quandaries they find themselvesRead MoreOedipus-a Tragic Hero706 Words   |  3 PagesRunning head: Oedipus-A Tragic Hero Research Paper ENGL 102: Literature and Composition) Fall 2015 Melinda Meeds L26683811 APA Outline Thesis: In Sophocles’ â€Å"Oedipus†, Oedipus is exemplified as a tragic hero according to Aristotle’s definition because his story appeals to the reader’s humanity in the way he maintains his strengths after inadvertently causing his own downfall. I. Oedipus A. The noble birth. B. Describe Oedipus’ character. II. Tragedy A. DescribeRead MoreHeroism In Oedipus The King And The Odyssey1132 Words   |  5 PagesStobbe Dr. Dutch October 17 Heroism in Oedipus the King and The Odyssey Life is filled with a multitude of challenges and obstacles; in this case, life is often defined in relation to the ability if an individual to overcome and defeat such things. Aspects of heroism are evident in the situations and events that arise in the life of someone. This essay dives into the element of heroism that is evident is the stories: Oedipus the King and The Odyssey. Oedipus the King and The Odyssey share a multitudeRead MoreOedipus As A Tragic Hero1724 Words   |  7 PagesIn the story of Oedipus, Oedipus is considered a â€Å"Tragic Hero† because of the tragic fate and effect that he had upon his life. My definition of a tragedy is a great loss that has a unhappy ending to which concluded me to state that Oedipus falls under that category. Throughout the book, Oedipus is leading himself to his own destruction when trying to find the killer of the late King Laios. So when a journal article I found published by The John Hopkins University Press stated that a â€Å"tragic heroRead MoreAnalysis Of Oedipus The King And Antigone1170 Words   |  5 Pages In civilizations such as Athens, women were looked down upon and this battle to leave behind tradition proved to be almost if not fatal. Sophocles Oedipus the King and Antigone exemplify three distinct female Athenian characters who approach this battle with different fronts. Through anal ysis of Ismene, Antigone and Jocasta’s distinct characters, the reader better understands how Sophocles uses a feminine voice to break away from the tradition discerned in Athenian life to advocate for the rise

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Keep Struggling Students Working with These Strategies

As a teacher, there is nothing more challenging than trying to help out a struggling student. It can become quite difficult and oftentimes you are left feeling helpless, especially when everything that you have tried doesnt seem to work. Sometimes, it may seem like the easiest thing to do is to just give the student the answer and be done with it, you do have about twenty other kids to attend to after all. However, this is not the answer. All of your students need you to give them the tools to persevere. Here are the top 10 teaching strategies to help your struggling students keep on going. Teach Students Perseverance In order to succeed in anything in life, you have to work hard. Students who are struggling in school have never been taught that when the going gets tough that they have to push through it and keep on trying until they get it. Try writing down some motivating quotes and tips on how students can persevere and hang them in the classroom for everyone to see. Do Not Give Your Students the Answer Resist the urge to give your students the answer. While this may seem like the easiest thing to it, it is not the smartest. You are the teacher and it is your job to give your students the tools they need to succeed. If you just give them the answer how are you teaching them to do it on their own? The next time you want to save time and just give your struggling student the answer, remember to give them the tool to do it on their own. Give Children Time to Think The next time that you ask a student to give you an answer try waiting an extra few minutes and see what happens. Studies have shown that teachers only wait about 1.5 seconds between when they ask a student a question, and when they ask a student to answer. If only the student would have more time, would they be able to come up with an answer? Do Not Take I Dont Know for an Answer How many times have you heard the words I dont know since you started teaching? Besides giving students more time to think, also make them come up with an answer. Then have them explain how they came to get their answer. If all the children know that it is a requirement in your classroom to come up with an answer, then you will never have to hear those dreaded words again. Give Students a Cheat Sheet Often times, struggling students have a difficult time remembering what is expected of them. To help them with this, try giving them a cheat sheet. Have them write down the directions on a sticky note and place it on their desks, or make sure to always write everything down on the board for the students who constantly need a reference. Not only will this help the students, but it will also deter a lot of them from raising their hands and asking what they have to do next. Teach Time Management Many students have a hard time with time management. This is usually because managing their time seems overwhelming, or simply because they have never been taught the skill. Try helping students with their time management skills by having them write down their daily schedule and how much time they think it takes them for each item that they listed. Then, go over their schedule with them and discuss how much time should really be spent on each task. This activity will help the student understand how managing their time is essential in order for them to succeed in school. Be Encouraging Most of the time students that struggle in the classroom, struggle because they have no confidence in themselves. Be encouraging and always tell the student that you know they can do it. Your constant encouragement may be all they need to persevere. Teach Students to Move On When a child gets stuck on a problem or a question, their first reaction is usually to raise their hand and ask for help. While this is an okay thing to do, it should not be their first thing to do. Their first reaction should be to try and figure it out on their own, then their second thought should be to ask a neighbor, and their final thought should be to raise their hand and ask the teacher. The problem is, you have to teach the students to do this and make it a requirement that they follow. For example, if a student is stuck on a word when reading, have them use the word attack strategy where they look at the picture for help, try to stretch the word out or chunk it, or skip the word and come back to it. Students need to use the tool of moving on and trying to figure it out themselves before asking for help from the teacher. Promote Cognitive Thinking Encourage students to use their thinking caps. This means that when you ask them a question, they should really take the time to think about their answer. This also means that you as the teacher need to come up with some innovative questions that really make the students think. Teach Students to Slow Down Teach students to take it one task at a time. Sometimes students will find it easier to complete the task when they break it apart into smaller, simplest tasks. Once they complete the first part of the task then they can move on to the next part of the assignment, and so on. By taking it one task at a time students will find that they will struggle less.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Dante s Daughter Free Essays

Their family is then forced to leave their home town of Florence Italy by the co instant dueling of political groups in the cities, between the white Gulfs, who opposed the p papacy influence and the black Gulfs, who supported the papacy. Dante, her father, also a white Gulf supporter, went to Rome on â€Å"business† to see Pope Boniface VIII, when the black Gulfs take over the CIA TTY, the Aligner family knew that they had to escape the city in fear that they would all be killed by ca use of Dent’s political standing and the fact that he was not present in Florence. Antonio was to fool w her brothers out of the city and their mother would meet them later, they had to run out of the city, s he saw many gruesome events of war while she was fleeing the city, she saw the true chaos that came from people during times of war. We will write a custom essay sample on Dante s Daughter or any similar topic only for you Order Now Their family had to disperse amongst their relatives and some of her b rooters even went away to become apprentices Gina went to their Uncle Francesco, while Pitter and Jackpot became ablates with the Dominicans at Santa Maria. As for Antonio she went to stay and help with her father’s sister, Deviant, and her family, Disco her uncle who was a painter, and her cousins Margarita and Foe in Siena. As for her mother, she had went to work on her mother’s farms. Antonio lived with her aunt and uncle for nearly five years. Her mother visited her as often as she could. She worked along with Disco in his shop learning to paint, and hell peed out with the housework with Deviant, Margarita and Lecturer, Disco’s sister. She had SSH eared a bed with Margarita who was only a couple of years older than her and got to know he r real well. One day Notation’s father sends a letter to her, inviting her to come along with him to P arise France since he will e studying at the university there, he already offered her brothers to come w tit but they could not. Shortly after Antonio receives the letter her father. Dante arrived so soon that Antonio had barely gotten to make up her mind, but she decided to go along with her father on this DVD endure. Through their travels Antonio gets a new understanding of her father. Antonio along with he r inattentive father travel from city to city spending their nights in either inns or with nobles, in their cash tiles. Pond their arrival to Paris, Dante immediately goes to into his studies in search h of new knowledge, while in the first couple of days Antonio is just sitting around the an. Eventually, Antonio met up with an old friend of her fathers, at a Beguine, a community of sings e women living under Nun like conditions but could work to make a living and could break free of an y vows and leave if they like. Antonio decided to stay with the women of the Beguine while her father r studied at the university. The three ladies Antonio stayed with, Claire, Mated, and Assess, worked as illumination, an art form done to liven up a page of a book or a document, Antonio helped with her prior knowledge f painting. Events quickly went downhill for the group of girls, Assess died, and later her mother Claire. As for Antonio, Dante decided that the knowledge he had sought, could d not be obtained at the University and they decided to head back to Italy. Antonio had returned to Siena to stay with her Uncle Disco’s family again, who ill Dante had left her to work with the emperor of Germany and Italy. Disco was on a new commission that had made them much wealthier, and of course everyone was much older than the y were previously. Margarita was soon to be engaged with Pitter, and Antonio had also begun t experience her share of romantic relationships, first with Seeing a loving apprentice to Disco, then Tit ere to Farina, a young man who lived in Florence, when she had moved there to live with her mother r and uncle. Yet neither one worked out, she left Siena forgetting about Seeing, and when the emperor r failed at capturing Florence, the Aligner name meant little and was hated in Florence, so Farina a didn’t want to marry her. Notation’s Family was reunited and continued to live on in a house of their owe n in Vienna. Antonio struggled with what the true meaning of her life was to be with god. S he had gotten malaria, which she was lucky enough to surpass. Imbroglio, on of her best friends fro m back in Siena had came to visit her in her State Of illness and wanted to marry her, Antonio agrees and they live happily, until Imbroglio dies of plague. Antonio then decides, knowing her fate, to join the c invent of San Stefan Dogleg Alive. The Historical fiction novel, Dana?s Daughter had gotten many things right with barely any wrongful descriptions, the author, Kimberly Houston surely did their homework. Not only did she write this novel accurately she did it in SST of the different aspects of the book. Whether it was from their lifestyle of different social classes, like what they ate, wore and how they lived, the way they traveled, the events that happened in the time period of the early fourteenth century, their beliefs, and even the fact that most of the characters actually existed in this time period. The author portrayed the lifestyles of the people in the book very realistically. The roles of women in the 1300†² in actuality was to stay home maintain the household, cooking, cleaning and taking care of the children, which was the name roles the author portrayed, the mothers of different households always prepared their food and spent the day cleaning and tidying up the house. Younger girls like Antonio in the novel helped with such chores like the laundry. In the novel they did the laundry down at the river which was common in that era (McKay, John P. ). Antonio mother wore a turban when she would clean, which was also accurately explained. Clothing worn by characters was only described for the females, it was always gowns with different colors, always handmade by the mothers of the household, and silk as very dressy and expensive. In history, it was common for families to make their own clothing and women only really wore gowns, silk was of the most valuable cloth in this time frame as well (McKay, John As for the common diet of Italians in the thirteen hundreds, consisted mostly of bread, which was the most important staple of their diet and stews, made of whatever ingredients they could get. Houston wrote about what they would eat, they would always eat bread with olive oil, and Notation’s mother would always have the best soups made from the best ingredients she could mind, which would have been correct for the time period and the wealth of the Aligner family. Between the pair of Antonio and Dante, when they were traveling they had a mule and horse, which only the higher class could afford since many poor pilgrims could only travel on foot which was accurate for the time too. The Nobility that Dante and Antonio stayed with also had a very descriptive lifestyle differing from the Aligner family. The upper class lived in large palaces or castles and had feasts very often, in which they ate exotic foods, crayfish, eels in plum sauce, asparagus, cheese tarts, green beans eked in almond milk, roast venison with garlic, partridge stewed with lentils and shallots, chicken cooked with pears and brandy, tiny spring lettuces dressed with olive oil and perceive, junket, strawberry tarts, and many other dishes. The nobility also had the ability to house many subjects they sought useful for their skills. There were two major patrons of Dante, lady Cluenice, and Can Grandee. In history little is known about the true paths Dante had taken, there is no account of him staying with a lady Cluenice, but there is documentation of him staying with Can Grandee for the reason of Can Grandee’s interests in the importance and reasoning behind The Divine Comedy, that Dante was writing the evidence is found in the letter that Dante had written to Can Grandee explaining the books (Aligner, Dante). Dante Aligner was a famous poet in the time period who had written many books the three parts that make up The Divine Comedy, Inferno, Purgatorial, and Paradise, all mentioned in the book plus his writings of other books, and The Banquet, although over fifty poetic works are known from Dante. Antonio was very fascinated by the large structures of the gigantic cathedrals in Paris, mainly Notre dame. She was very intrigued, and found peace amongst its’ large mosaics held together by lead. This account was very accurate, Notre dame is famous for its’ large mosaics, and it started its construction in 1160 and finished in 1345, well within Notation’s lifetime. Kimberly Houston portrayed the lifestyles of different social groups very accurately throughout the novel. There was one common disease that multiple people contracted throughout the happening of the book, and it was malaria, a disease carried by mosquito. Antonio had contracted it, and during the time it was almost a death sentence (McKay, John P. , yet she survived through it. Antonio had experienced immense pain and was deathly ill, for a couple of weeks, then would endure eight hour long fevers and intense pain that would go away and return two days later. Antonio went through series of pains much like the actual symptoms which were, headaches, fever, lethargy, chills, abdominal pains, sickness, muscular pains, diarrhea, and coughing fits. Kimberly Houston had shown the symptoms characters were experiencing accurately as they would be in the real world. The common scientific beliefs of people in the novel were also of accurate details in the novel. Accurately for this time, people in the story believed in the Ptolemaic system. Which stated that the heavens rotated on big crystal spheres around the earth. This was the common belief until 1 543, when Copernicus published On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres, which proved the earth was not at the center Of the universe (McKay, John Many of the events that took place in the book happened in real life. In the book, King Phillips armies had harried Boniface VII to death, and engineered Clement V into office, and brought the papacy into France. While written accurately, the papacy was stationed in Avignon, France in 1309, in the time frame covered in the book, and in fact it was King Philip IV that that is responsible for both moving the papacy and bringing in a tradition of having French popes. Another event including King Philip IV of France is that there is a scene from the book where the Knights Template and everyone associated with them are being arrested for the Kings’ benefit. What the book failed to mention is the reasoning behind Philip Avis’ actions and motives of this action. King Philip IV was very much in debt to the Template, whereas in the novel had explained it s the ‘Template were engaged in unnatural and illegal activities offensive to god†¦ † (Houston, Kimberley Burton), which was not true since the Template Were a strictly ran group, by the pope, to be a religious army, but King Philip did have them arrested in real history for his own benefit. The Template, described by Houston, were very large, muscular men, with the knowledge of scholars, which is an accurate description of the way the Knights Template would have been since they were knights. Antonio along with the other women of the Beguine, had done work for the Template illuminating comments, which would have been against the code of the Template to have any contact with women (Temporarily. Com). Another event that took place was the newly elected emperor Henry VII, who in the novel was convinced by Dante Aligner to march on Florence to capture it amongst his empire and to hopefully redeem the Aligner name in Florence, Italy. The holy roman emperor Henry VII of Germany historically had the support of Dante, and did wage war on Romancer since they were part of the Gulfs, both Dante and Henry VII were Gibberellins (McKay, John P). Yet another event that occurred in he book happened in Verona, Italy, it was that the palace that Can Grandee lived in was frescoed by an artist named Ghetto, nothing is known of his work in Verona, Ghost’s Personality in the book was that he was very enthusiastic and compassionate towards art, he also had a very high pitch girl laugh, Not much is known of his personality although he did work on many frescoes. In addition, the Aligner Family was forced to leave their hometown of Florence by cause of the dueling political parties, the Gibberellins and the Gulfs, which were actual groups at the time which either liked the pope’s influence on everything or despised it. Lastly, the fall of Rome to the Byzantines and barbarians who began to construct huge basilicas with large mosaics on the interior, was mentioned towards the latter part of the book, the Byzantines had actually built these large basilicas although it was really the decline of the holy roman empire that brought in these Byzantines and barbarians to influence Rome (McKay, John The options a women could take throughout their life was described in the book as, if they did not get married, they could use their dowry from their parents to join a convent and become a nun, join a Beguine, or become a requisite. This statement made in the book by Antonio is not completely true, not only could women become housewives, nuns, or prostitutes, but they could also work as servants or join a Beguine. In the book none of the younger people had known about Beguines, and even when Antonio had found out she only thought that they existed in France. Although many of the surviving Beguines exist in Belgium albeit there was one in France, and many of the ancient Beguines had existed on the outskirts of Paris, the Beguine described in the book, sounded like it was nearly in the center Of Paris, because it was within a short walking distance to important areas like shops and Dante could be there quickly to visit, plus there were buildings they went to on both sides of the Beguine. The tools and procedures used by the different artistic professions were described briefly in the novel, it had listed the linoleum, what processes they would make paints and glues for frames, and the different layers in a fresco. The linoleum was a moon shaped knife meant for preparing parchment by scraping the excess skin and hairs off of pelts. This linoleum knife was actually seed almost exclusively for illuminating because illuminating required a special type of medium to be written on (â€Å"Illumination parchment). Antonio had known the preparation steps to make this parchment from learning it from Disco he uncle, who was an artist, one would take calf skin stretch it out, scrape the excess skin and impurities from it, then split it into separate sheets until of desirable thickness, and then scrape it again with the linoleum to get rid of any shiny surfaces. This process of manufacturing parchment was common through the middle ages and into the Renaissance (Differences teens Parchment, Vellum and Paper. ). When Disco was working on the Masses;, an actual painting done in sienna by the real Disco (Disco Did Obnoxiousness, Masses; Altarpiece), him and his apprentices, would always be asking for egg whites from the girls to mix with pigments from plants, and asking for cheeses which they would use to make their glues to put together frames. Egg whites were in fact used to make the popular paint tempera during the Renaissance, and so was cheese used inn glues during this time period. The base layers of frescoes described in the novel, by Houston, was Ricoh, and intonation, these were the easiest and required the least artistic ability out of the whole Fresco process, and they were the top finishing layer and the base starting layer (â€Å"Categories Terms†. ). The author had gotten every detail right, when it came to the tools and procedures that had been used in the making of the artwork in the story. The river systems as described in the novel were the Aaron River of Florence, and the Adage River of Verona. The Main character Antonio had described the Aaron River as Very muddy and not very navigable whereas the Adage River in Verona was better navigable and as a result had more trade coming in. The Aaron River in Florence has many tributaries which makes it harder to navigate and the Adage River does not making it easier to navigate. In Conclusion, the author, Kimberly Houston, did a very good job in the development of Dent’s Daughter. She had gotten about ninety-nine percent of the detail, events and people right in the development of this book. She had made the fiction life of actual characters very accurate and convincing for the time period. She had gotten the tools and procedures for certain artistic jobs right or the time frame, the correct people doing the right events in the right year, correct descriptions of travel and the river ways, the ways certain groups acted, the food they ate, the clothes they wore, the ideology of the common people, the side effects of malaria, artistic terms, and even the existence Of certain characters and their connection in history. How to cite Dante s Daughter, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

About Violent Video Games free essay sample

On November 29, 2013 a 16-year-old boy, Kendall Anderson, bludgeoned his mother to death in her sleep with a claw hammer after she took away his PlayStation due to his obsession of Mortal Kombat 3†, According to Wikipedia.org. Violent video games causes many horrible outcomes, like leading to aggressive behavior in children, bad effects to the brain, and gives kids the wrong message. Therefore, Minors under the age of 18 should not have access to a violent video game.One of the most gruesome effect of violent video games is that a minor’s innocence can completely change into bad behavior after playing for a long period of time. According to a scientific study made by Anderson and Bushman in 2001, children who play more violent video games are more likely to have increased aggressive thoughts, emotions,and behavior along with decreased prosocial helping. In many games, minors are rewarded for committing an act of violence which is done so often that they’re already used to it. We will write a custom essay sample on About Violent Video Games or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Since the minor is in control of the violence, like killing, stabbing, shooting, and kicking virtual characters, they experience the whole package with his or her own eyes. This active participation, repetition, and rewards in violent video games are effective tools for learning behavior, however it is neither good nor positive. Many people believe that video games do not affect ones behavior, that it only depends on the type of child and their home influence but look at this, a study of 3,034 secondary and primary school students showed that those who play more violent video games tend to be the ones most likely to commit acts of aggression, such as physically hurting others. For instance, the only thing in common with the young men who opened fire at Columbine high school, the movie theater in Aurora of Cole, and other massacres, is that they were video gamers who seemed to be acting out some dark digital fantasy. It was almost as if all that exposure to computerized violence gave them the idea to go on a rampage. Thus, these kinds of revolting games cause such extreme violence in many minor’s behavior and should never happen again.

Thursday, March 26, 2020

Publicistic Style free essay sample

The publicist style of language became discernible as a separate style In the middle of the 18th century. It also falls into three varieties, each having its own distinctive features. Unlike other styles, the publicist style has a spoken variety, namely, the oratorical subtle. The development of radio and television has brought into being another new spoken variety, namely, the radio and TV commentary. The other two subtitles are the essay (moral, philosophical, literary) and Journalistic articles (political, social, economic) In newspapers, Journals and magazines.Book reviews In Journals, newspapers and magazines and also pamphlets are generally included among essays. The general aim of publicist style, which makes it stand out as a separate style, is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed In the speech, essay or article not merely through logical argumentation but through emotional appeal as well. We will write a custom essay sample on Publicistic Style or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This brain-washing function Is most effective n oratory, for here the most powerful instrument of persuasion, the human voice, is brought into play. Due to its characteristic combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal, publicist style has features in common with the style of scientific prose, on the one hand, and that of emotive prose, on the other. Its coherent and logical syntactical structure, with an expanded system of connectives and its careful paragraphing, makes It similar to scientific prose.Its emotional appeal Is generally achieved by the use of words with emotive meaning. The use of Imagery and other titlists devices as in emotive prose: but the stylistic devices used in publicist style are not fresh, or genuine. The individual element essential to the belles-letters style is, as a rule, little in evidence here. This is in keeping with the general character of the style. The manner of presenting ideas, however, brings this style closer to that of belles-letters, In this case to emotive prose, as it Is to a certain extent Individual.Naturally, of course, essays and speeches have greater individuality than newspaper or magazine articles where the Individual element Is generally toned down and emitted by the requirements of the style. 287 Further, publicist style is characterized by brevity of expression. In some varieties of this style it becomes a leading feature, an important linguistic means. In essays brevity sometimes becomes epigrammatic. 1. ORATORY AND SPEECHES The oratorical style of language is the oral subdivision of the publicist style. It has already been pointed out that persuasion is the most obvious purpose of oratory. Oratorical speech, writes A.Potency, seeks not only to secure the understanding and. Digesting of the Idea, but also serves simultaneously as a spring setting off a remits a combination of the syntactical, lexical and phonetic peculiarities of both the written and spoken varieties of language. In its leading features, however, oratorical style belongs to the written variety of language, though it is modified by the oral form of the utterance and the use of gestures. Certain typical features of the spoken variety of speech present in this style are: direct address to the audience (ladies and gentlemen, honorable member(s), the use of the 2nd person pronoun you, etc. , sometimes contractions (Ill, wont, havent, isnt and others) and the use of aliquot words. This style is evident in speeches on political and social problems of the day, in orations and addresses on solemn occasions, as public weddings, funerals and Jubilees, in sermons and debates and also in the speeches of counsel and Judges in courts of law. Political speeches fall into two categories: parliamentary debates, and speeches, at rallies, congresses, meetings and election campaigns.Sermons deal mostly with religious subjects, ethics and morality; sometimes nowadays they take up social and political problems as well. Orations on solemn public occasions are typical pessimism of this style and not a few of their word sequences and phrases are ready-made phrases or cliches. The sphere of application of oratory is confined to an appeal to an audience and therefore crucial issues in such spheres as science, art, literature, or business relations are not touched upon except perhaps by allu sion. If such problems are dealt with in oratorical style the effect is humorous. The following extract from Posthumous Papers of the Picking Club by Charles Dickens is a parody of an oration. -? But I trust, Sir, said Poet, that I have never abused the enormous power I wield. I trust, Sir, that I have never pointed the noble instrument which is placed in my hands, against the sacred bosom of private life, of the tender breast of individual reputation;-? I trust, Sir, that I have devoted my energies to-?to endeavourers-?humble they may be, humble I know they are-?to instill those principles 1 nowhere A.A. Pop. Cit. , p. 4. 288 -? Here the editor of the Denotations Gazette appearing to ramble, Mr.. Picking came to his relief, and said-?Certainly. -? The stylistic devices employed in oratorical style- are determined by the conditions of communication. If the desire of the beaker is to rouse the audience and to keep it in suspense, he will use various traditional stylistic devices. But undue prominence given to the form may lead to an exaggerated use of these devices, to embellishment. Tradition is very powerful in oratorical style and the 16th century rhetorical principles laid down by Thomas Wilson in his Rate of Rhetoric are sometimes still used in modern oratory, though, on the whole, modern oratory tends to lower its key more and more, confining itself to a quiet business-like exposition of ideas. Stylistic devices are closely interwoven and mutually complementary thus building up an intricate tatter. For example, antithesis is framed by parallel constructions, which, in their turn, are accompanied by repetition, while climax can be formed by repetitions of different kinds.As the audience rely only on memory, the speaker often resorts to speech. Repetition is also resorted to in order to convince the audience, to add weight to the speakers opinion. The following extract from the speech of the American Confederate general, A. P. Hill, on the ending of the Civil War in the U. S. A. Is an example of anaphoric repetition: It is high time this people had recovered from he passions of war. It is high time that counsel were taken from statesmen, not demagogues It is high time the people of the North and the South understood each other and adopted means to inspire confidence in each other Further, Indianapolis is used: The South will not secede again. That was her great folly-folly against her own interest, not wrong against you. A mere repetition of the same idea and in the same linguistic form may bore the audience and destroy the speaker-audience contact, therefore synonymic phrase repetition is used instead, thus filling up the speech with details and embellishing it, as in this excerpt from a speech on Robert Burns: For Burns exalted our race, he hallowed Scotland and the Scottish tongue.Before his time we had for a long period been scarcely recognized; we had been falling out of the recollection of the world. From the time of the Union of the Crowns, and still more from the legislative union, Scotland had lapsed into obscurity. Except for an occasional riot or a Jacobin rising, her existence was almost forgotten. Here synonymic phras e repetition (been scarcely recognized, falling out of the recollection f the world, had lapsed into obscurity, her existence was almost forgotten) is coupled with climax. 89 Repetition can be regarded as the most typical stylistic device of English oratorical style. Almost any piece of oratory will have parallel constructions, antithesis, suspense, climax, rhetorical questions and questions-in-the-narrative. It will be no exaggeration to say that almost all the typical syntactical stylistic devices can be found in English oratory. Questions are most frequent because they promote closer contact with the audience. The change of intonation breaks the monotony of the intonation pattern and revives the attention of the listeners.The desire of the speaker to convince and to rouse his audience results in the use of simile and metaphor, but these are generally traditional ones, as fresh and genuine stylistic devices may divert the attention of the listeners away from the main point of the speech. Besides, unexpected and original images are more difficult to grasp and the process takes time. If a genuine metaphor is used by an orator, it is usually a sustained one, as a series of related images is easier to grasp and facilitates the conception of facts identified one with another.Allusions in oratorical style depend on the content of the speech and the level of the audience. Special obligatory forms open up and end an oration, e. G. My Lords; Mr.. President; Mr. . Chairman; Your Worship; Ladies and Gentlemen, etc. At the end of his speech the speaker usually thanks the audience for their attention by saying: Thank you or Thank you very much. Expressions of direct address may be repeated in the course of the speech and can be expressed differently: dear friends, my friends, Mark you! , Mind!Here is a sample of the speech made by a member of the House of Commons in Parliament in April 956 when the problem of air pollution was discussed. It is an ordinary speech the audience. There has been a tremendous change in the Ministers attitude since the Bill was first brought to the House. When we embarked upon the Committee stage we were begging for bread and he gave us a stone. Now, seemingly, when we are coming to the end of the feast he is putting many sweets in front of us. The Minister hopes that we shall accept this proposal without too critical an examination.While welcoming the Ministers proposals about the Clean Air Council up to a point, here should be no interference with the councils accountability to Parliament because the chairman of the council will be the Minister. When the hon.. Member for Exterminated (Mr.. Onboard) introduced a Private Bill, the Minister consulted at great length with interested bodies, and particularly with local authorities. It is within my knowledge that during those consultations suggestions were made to him by people who had practical experience.. Those suggestions have not been accepted and woven into the Bill.I do not want the Clean Air Council to become a kind of onscreen behind which the Minister makes a report to his own liking and which may contain views at variance with those of members of the council. 290 It is essential, if the council is to be effective, that it includes people who are interested and who have the knowledge and who have undertaken the scientific- research involved. It must be remembered that they will have a great deal more knowledge of the subject than will the chairman of the council. They will, therefore, have a totally different point of view about what is happening in the country than will the Minister.We should provide that we have the uncompromising opinions of the members of the council, including those members appointed to it because of their knowledge of the problems of various localities. Another point with which I want to deal was touched upon by the hon.. Member for Exterminated. During the Committee stage we debated at great length the topic of research into noxious fumes, especially sulfuric oxides. We especially pleaded that the Clean Air Council should have co-ordination powers so that it could co-ordinate the activities of bodies conducting research into problems of oxides and noxious fumes. Indeed, we thought that the Ministers opinion upon that subject was the same as ours. As the Bill is now drafted, certain powers are given to local authorities to contribute towards the cost of investigation and research into the pollution of the air. We know that scientific and technical institutes and the fuel technology sections of some universities are conducting research into the problem of sulfuric pollution; yet we do not see any power given to the Clean Air Council to deal with the problem of sulfuric oxides, even though sulfuric pollution is one of the worst forms of air pollution.Will the Minister give us an assurance that he will specially direct the attention of the Clean Air Council to its duties in co-ordination research into the problem of sulfuric oxides? Will he at the same time look again at the problem of Parliamentary accountability to make it possible for the council to give an annual report to the House, irrespective of the opinions of the Minister? The ornamen tal elements in this speech are reduced to the minimum. It is a matter-of-fact speech where no high- flown words or elaborate stylistic devices are to be found.It will be of considerable interest to compare this speech to Borons Maiden Speech in the House of Lords in style. Byron used his eloquence against the Bill providing capital punishment for the destruction of machines. His purpose was to prevent the passage of the Bill, to get an impartial examination of the facts. Borons speech is rich in oratorical devices. All these devices are motivated, they are organically connected with the utterance: the form by no means dominates the content.In contradistinction, an examination of the following speech will show that it is practically devoid of meaning. The speaker is merely seeking an effect. 91 Mr.. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: It is indeed a great and undeserved privilege to address such an audience as I see before me. At no previous time in the history of human civilization have greater problems confronted and challenged the ingenuity of mans intellect than now. Let us look around us. What do we see on the horizon?What forces are at work? Whither are we drifting? Under what mist of clouds does the future stand obscured? My friends, casting aside the raiment of all human speech, the crucial test for the solution of all these intricate problems to which I have Just alluded is the sheer and reoccur application of those immutable laws which down the corridor of Time have always guided the hand of man, groping, as it were, for some faint beacon light for his hopes and aspirations.Without these great vital principles we are but puppets responding to whim and fancy, failing entirely to grasp the hidden meaning of it all. We must re-address ourselves to these questions which press for answer and solution. The issues cannot be avoided. There they stand. It is upon you, and you, and yet even upon me, that the yoke of responsibility falls. What, then, is our duty? Shall e continue to drift? No! With all the emphasis of my being I hurl back the message No! Drifting must stop.We must press onward and upward toward the ultimate goal to which all must aspire. But I cannot conclude my remarks, dear friends, without touching briefly upon a subject which I know is steeped in your very consciousness. I refer to that spirit which gleams from the eyes of a new-born babe, that animates the toiling masses, that sways all the hosts of humanity past and present. Without this energize principle all commerce, trade and industry are hushed and will perish room this earth as surely as the crimson sunset follows the golden sunshine. Mark you, I do not seek to unduly alarm or distress the mothers, fathers, sons and daughters gathered before me in this vast assemblage, but I would indeed be recreant too high resolve which I made as a youth if I did not at this time and in this place, and with the full realizing sense of responsibility which I assume, publicly declare and affirm my dedication and my consecration to the eternal principles and receipts of simple, ordinary, commonplace Justice. 1 The proper evaluation of this speech should be: Words, words, words. The whole speech is made to hide the fact that the speaker has no thought.Questions remain unanswered, climaxes are not motivated. What is the subject that cannot be left untouched? This is really a masterpiece of eloquent emptiness and verbosity. 1 The example is borrowed from Altair, R. D. Preface to Critical Reading. Holt, N. Y. , 1956, up. Vile-?veal. 292 As a separate form of English literature the essay dates from the close of the 16th century. The name appears to have become common on the publication of Montages Essays, a literary form created by this French writer. The essay is a dietary composition of moderate length on philosophical, social, aesthetic or literary subjects.It never goes deep into the subject, but merely touches upon the surface. Personality in the treatment of theme and naturalness of expression are two of the most obvious characteristics of the essay. An essay is rather a series of personal and witty comments than a finished argument or a conclusive examination of any matter. This literary genre has definite linguistic traits which shape it as a variety of publicist style. Here is a part of an essay by Ben Johnson which illustrates this style n its most typical and original form as it was at the end of the 16th century: Language most shows a man; speak, that I may see thee.It springs out of the most retired and inmost parts of us, and is the image of the parent of it, the mind. No glass renders a mans form or likeness so true, as his speech. Nay, it is likened to a man; and as we consider feature and composition in a man, so words in language; in the greatness, aptness, sound, structure, and harmony of it. Some men are tall and big, so some language is high and great. Then the words are chosen, the sound ample, he composition full, the absolution plenteous, and poured out, all grace, sinewy and strong.Some are little and dwarfs; so of speech, it is humble and low; the words are poor and flat; the members are periods thin and weak, without knitting or number. The middle are of Just stature. There the language is plain and pleasing: even without stopping, round without swelling; all well turned, composed, eloquent, and accurate. The vicious language is vast and gaping; swelling and irregular; when it contends, high, full of rock, mountain and pointlessness; as it affects to be low it is abject and creeps, full of bogs and holes. The essay was very popular in the 17th and 18th centuries. In the 17th century essays were written on topics connected with morals and ethics, while those of the 18th century focused attention on political and philosophical problems. The 18th century was the great age of essay writing. It was then the principal literary form, and discoursed on the important subjects of the day, often criticizing the shortcomings of the political and social system in England. Encyclopedia Britannica states that the essay became a dominant force in English literature of the 18th century.The following statement of an 18th century essayist is of some interest as it describes the character of the essay: We writers of essays or (as they are termed) periodical papers. .. This statement shows that periodical papers at that time contained only essays. In the 19th century the essay as a literary term gradually changed into what we now call the Journalistic article or feature article which 293 covers all kinds of subjects from politics, philosophy or aesthetics to travel, sport and fashions. Feature articles are generally published in newspapers, especially weeklies and Sunday editions.They are often written by one and the same writer or Journalist, who has cultivated his own individual style. The most characteristic language writers a degree of pessimistically, 2) the use of the first person singular, which justifies a personal approach to the problems treated, 3) a rather expanded use of connectives, which facilitate the process of grasping the correlation of ideas, 4) the abundant use of emotive words, 5) the use of similes and sustained metaphors as one of the media for the cognitive process. It is in the interrelation of these constituents that the real secret of the essay subtle consists. Some essays, depending on the writers individuality, are written in a highly emotional manner resembling the style of emotive prose, others resemble scientific prose, and the terms review, memoir or treatise are more applicable to certain more exhaustive studies. 1 The essay on moral and philosophical topics in modern times has not been so popular, perhaps because a deeper scientific analysis and interpretation of facts is required.The essay in our days is often biographical; persons, facts and events are taken from life. These essays differ from those of previous centuries -? their scapulars is simpler and so is their logical structure and argumentation. But they still retain all the leading features of the publicist style. In comparison with oratorical style, the essay aims at a more lasting, hence, at a slower effect. Epigrams, paradoxes and aphorisms are comparatively rare in oratory, as they require the concentrated attention of the listener.In the essay they are commoner, for the reader has opportunity to make a careful and detailed study both of the content of the utterance and its form. The close resemblance in structure between the essay and he oration has more than once been emphasized by linguists. The main difference between them is very well summarized by H. Robbins and R. Oliver in their work Developing ideas into Essays and Speeches. . .. An essay is distinguished from a speech primarily . By the fact that the essay seeks a lasting, the speech an immediate effect.Words of emotive meaning, for example, are few, if any, in popular scientific articles. Their exposition is more consistent and the system of connectives more expanded than, say, in a satirical article. The language of political magazine articles differs little from that of newspaper articles as described in the chapter on Newspaper Style (see low). But such elements of publicist style as rare and bookish words, neologisms (which sometimes require explanation in the text), traditional, word-combinations and parenthesis are more frequent here than in newspaper articles.In an article dealing with what were forthcoming presidential elections in the USA, which it is impossible to quote here because of its length, we find such bookish and highbrows words as ambivalent, exhilarated, appalled, etc. Its argumentation and emotional appeal is achieved by emphatic constructions of different kinds: how dim the outlook or victory was, Stevenson is anything but an irresponsible man, it could well have been, though. He is at once exhilarated and appalled, Humorous effect is produced by the use of words and phrases which normally are out of the range of this sort of article: melancholy, graciously, extending his best wishes, and by periphrases. Literary reviews stand closer to essays both by their content and by their linguistic form. More abs tract words of logical meaning are used in them, they often resort to emotional language and less frequently to traditional set expressions. Publicistic Style free essay sample The publicistic style of language became discernible as a separate style in the middle of the 18th century. It also falls into three varieties, each having its own distinctive features. Unlike other styles, the publicistic style has a spoken variety, namely, the oratorical substyle. The development of radio and television has brought into being another new spoken variety, namely, the radio and TV Ã' Ã ¾mmentary. The other two substyles are the essay (moral, philosophical, literary) and journalistic articles (political, social, economic) in newspapers, journals and magazines. Book reviews in journals, newspapers and magazines and also pamphlets are generally included among essays. The general aim of publicistic style, which makes it stand out as a separate style, is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer or the speaker is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the point of view expressed in the speech, essay or article not merely through logical argumentation but through emotional appeal as well. We will write a custom essay sample on Publicistic Style or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This brain-washing function is most effective in oratory, for here the most powerful instrument of persuasion, the human voice, is brought into play. Due to its characteristic combination of logical argumentation and emotional appeal, publicistic style has features in common with the style of scientific prose, on the one hand, and that of emotive prose, on the other. Its coherent and logical syntactical structure, with an expanded system of connectives and its careful paragraphing, makes it similar to scientific prose. Its emotional appeal is generally achieved by the use of words with emotive meaning, the use of imagery and other stylistic devices as in emotive prose; but the stylistic devices used in publicistic style are not fresh, or genuine. The individual element essential to the belles-lettres style is, as a rule, little in evidence here. This is in keeping with the general character of the style. The manner of presenting ideas, however, brings this style closer to that of belles-lettres, in this case to emotive prose, as it is to a certain extent individual. Naturally, of course, essays and speeches have greater individuality than newspaper or magazine articles where the individual element is generally toned down and limited by the requirements of the style. 287 Further, publicistic style is characterized by brevity of expression. In some varieties of this style it becomes a leading feature, an important linguistic means. In essays brevity sometimes becomes epigrammatic. 1. ORATORY AND SPEECHES The oratorical style of language is the oral subdivision of the publicistic style. It has already been pointed out that persuasion is the most obvious purpose of oratory. Oratorical speech, writes A. Potebnya, seeks not only to secure the understanding and. digesting of the idea, but also serves simultaneously as a spring setting off a mood (which is the aim) that may lead to action. 1 Direct contact with the listeners permits a combination of the syntactical, lexical and phonetic peculiarities of both the written and spoken varieties of language . In its leading features, however, oratorical style belongs to the written variety of language, though it is modified by the oral form of the utterance and the use of gestures. Certain typical features of the spoken variety of speech present in this style are: direct address to the audience (ladies and gentlemen, honourable member(s), the use of the 2nd person pronoun you, etc. ), sometimes contractions (Ill, wont, havent, isnt and others) and the use of colloquial words. This style is evident in speeches on political and social problems of the day, in orations and addresses on solemn occasions, as public weddings, funerals and jubilees, in sermons and debates and also in the speeches of counsel and judges in courts of law. Political speeches fall into two categories: parliamentary debates, and speeches, at rallies, congresses, meetings and election campaigns. Sermons deal mostly with religious subjects, ethics and morality; sometimes nowadays they take up social and political problems as well. Orations on solemn public occasions are typical specimens of this style and not a few of their word sequences and phrases are ready-made phrases or cliches. The sphere of application of oratory is confined to an appeal to an audience and therefore crucial issues in such spheres as science, art, literature, or business relations are not touched upon except perhaps by allusion. If such problems are dealt with in oratorical style the effect is humorous. The following extract from Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club by Charles Dickens is a parody of an oration. — But I trust, Sir, said Pott, that I have never abused the enormous power I wield. I trust, Sir, that I have never pointed the noble instrument which is placed in my hands, against the sacred bosom of private life, of the tender breast of individual reputation;— I trust, Sir, that I have devoted my energies to—to endeavours—humble they may be, humble I know they are—to instil those principles of—which—are—. ________ 1 — Here the editor of the Eatonswill Gazette appearing to ramble, Mr. Pickwick came to his relief, and said—Certainly. — The stylistic devices employed in oratorical style- are determined by the conditions of communication. If the desire of the speaker is to rouse the audience and to keep it in suspense, he will use various traditional stylistic devices. But undue prominence given to the form may lead to an exaggerated use of these devices, to embellishment. Tradition is very powerful in oratorical style and the 16th century rhetorical principles laid down by Thomas Wilson in his Arte of Rhetorique are sometimes still used in modern oratory, though, on the whole, modern oratory tends to lower its key more and more, confining itself to a quiet business-like exposition of ideas. Stylistic devices are closely interwoven and mutually complementary thus building up an intricate pattern. For example, antithesis is framed by parallel constructions, which, in their turn, are accompaniÐ µd by rÐ µpetition, while climax can be formed by repetitions of different kinds. As the audience rely only on memory, the speaker often resorts to repetitions to enable his listeners to follow him and retain the main points of his speech. Repetition is also resorted to in order to convince the audience, to add weight to the speakers opinion. The following extract from the speech of the American Confederate general, A. P. Hill, on the ending of the Civil War in the U. S. A. is an example of anaphoric repetition: It is high time this people had recovered from the passions of war. It is high time that counsel were taken from statesmen, not demagogues It is high time the people of the North and the South understood each other and adopted means to inspire confidence in each other Further, anadiplosis is used: The South will not secede again. That was her great folly-folly against her own interest, not wrong against you. A mere repetition of the same idea and in the same linguistic form may bore the audience and destroy the speaker-audience contact, therefore synonymic phrase repetition is used instead, thus filling up the speech with details and embellishing it, as in this excerpt from a speech on Robert Burns: For Burns exalted our race, he hallowed Scotland and the Scottish tongue. Before his time we had for a long period been scarcely recognized; we had been falling out of the recollection of the world. From the time of the Union of the Crowns, and still more from the legislative union, Scotland had lapsed into obscurity. Except for an occasional riot or a Jacobite rising, her existence was almost forgotten. Here synonymic phrase repetition (been scarcely recognized, falling out of the recollection of the world, had lapsed into obscurity, her existence was almost forgotten) is coupled with climax. 289 Repetition can be regarded as the most typical stylistic device of English oratorical style. Almost any piece of oratory will have parallel constructions, antithesis, suspense, climax, rhetorical questions and questions-in-the-narrative. It will be no exaggeration to say that almost all the typical syntactical stylistic devices can be found in English oratory. Questions are most frequent because they promote closer contact with the audience. The change of intonation breaks the monotony of the intonation pattern and revives the attention of the listeners. The desire of the speaker to convince and to rouse his audience results in the use of simile and metaphor, but these are generally traditional ones, as fresh and genuine stylistic devices may divert the attention of the listeners away from the main point of the speech. Besides, unexpected and original images are more difficult to grasp and the process takes time. If a genuine metaphor is used by an orator, it is usually a sustained one, as a series of related images is easier to grasp and facilitates the conception of facts identified one with another. Allusions in oratorical style depend on the content of the speech and the level of the audience. Special obligatory forms open up and end an oration, e. g. My Lords; Mr. President; Mr. Chairman; Your Worship; Ladies and Gentlemen, etc. At the end of his speech the speaker usually thanks the audience for their attention by saying: Thank you or Thank you very much. Expressions of direct address may be repeated in the course of the speech and can be expressed differently: dear friends, my friends, Mark you! , Mind! Here is a sample of the speech made by a member of the House of Commons in Parliament in April 1956 when the problem of air pollution was discussed. It is an ordinary speech almost devoid of any signs of elevation so typical when the orator tries to convince the audience. There has been a tremendous change in the Ministers attitude since the Bill was first brought to the House. When we embarked upon the Committee stage we were begging for bread and he gave us a stone. Now, seemingly, when we are coming to the end of the feast he is putting many sweets in front of us. The Minister hopes that we shall accept this proposal without too critical an examination. While welcoming the Ministers proposals about the C lean Air Council up to a point, there should be no interference with the council’s accountability to Parliament because the chairman of the council will be the Minister. When the hon. Member for Kidderminster (Mr. Nabarro) introduced a Private Bill, the Minister consulted at great length with interested bodies, and particularly with local authorities. It is within my knowledge that during those consultations suggestions were made to him by people who had practical experience. . Those suggestions have not been accepted and woven into the Bill. I do not want the Clean Air Council to become a kind of smokescreen behind which the Minister makes a report to his own liking and which may contain views at variance with those of members of the council. 290 It is essential, if the council is to be effective, that it includes people who are interested and who have the knowledge and who have undertaken the scientific-research involved. It must be remembered that they will have a great deal more knowledge of the subject than will the chairman of the council. They will, therefore, have a totally different point of view about what is happening in the country than will the Minister. We should provide that we have the uncompromising opinions of the members of the council, including those members appointed to it because of their knowledge of the roblems of various localities. Another point with which I want to deal was touched upon by the hon. Member for Kidderminster. During the Committee stage we debated at great length the topic of research into noxious fumes, especially sulphuric oxides. We especially pleaded that the Clean Air Council should have co-ordinating powers so that it could co-ordinate the activities of bodies conducting research into problems of oxides and noxious fumes. Indeed, we thought that the Ministers opinion upon that subject was the same as ours. As the Bill is now drafted, certain powers are given to local authorities to contribute towards the cost of investigation and research into the pollution of the air. We know that scientific and technical institutes and the fuel technology sections of some universities are conducting research into the problem of sulphuric pollution; yet we do not see any power given to the Clean Air Council to deal with the problem of sulphuric oxides, even though sulphuric pollution is one of the worst forms of air pollution. Will the Minister give us an assurance that he will specially direct the attention of the Clean Air Council to its duties in co-ordinating research into the problem of sulphuric oxides? Will he at the same time look again at the problem of Parliamentary accountability to make it possible for the council to give an annual report to the House, irrespective of the opinions of the Minister? The ornamental elements in this speech are reduced to the minimum. It is a matter-of-fact speech where no high-flown words or elaborate stylistic devices are to be found. It will be of considerable interest to compare this speech to Byrons Maiden Speech in the House of Lords in defence of the Luddites, which can be regarded as a perfect specimen of oratorical style. Byron used his eloquence against the Bill providing capital punishment for the destruction of machines. His purpose was to prevent the passage of the Bill, to get an impartial examination of the facts. Byrons speech is rich in oratorical devices. All these devices are motivated, they are organically connected with the utterance: the form by no means dominates the content. In contradistinction, an examination of the following speech will show that it is practically devoid of meaning. The speaker is merely seeking an effect. 291 Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: It is indeed a great and undeserved privilege to address such an audience as I see before me. At no previous time in the history of human civilization have greater problems confronted and challenged the ingenuity of mans intellect than now. Let us look around us. What do we see on the horizon? What forces are at work? Whither are we drifting? Under what mist of clouds does the future stand obscured? My friends, casting aside the raiment of all human speech, the crucial test for the solution of all these intricate problems to which I have just alluded is the sheer and forceful application of those immutable laws which down the corridor of Time have always guided the hand of man, groping, as it were, for some faint beacon light for his hopes and aspirations. Without these great vital principles we are but puppets responding to whim and fancy, failing entirely to grasp the hidden meaning of it all. We must re-address ourselves to these questions which press for answer and solution. The issues cannot be avoided. There they stand. It is upon you, and you, and yet even upon me, that the yoke of responsibility falls. What, then, is our duty? Shall we continue to drift? No! With all the emphasis of my being I hurl back the message No! Drifting must stop. We must press onward and upward toward the ultimate goal to which all must aspire. But I cannot conclude my remarks, dear friends, without touching briefly upon a subject which I know is steeped in your very consciousness. I refer to that spirit which gleams from the eyes of a new-born babe, that animates the toiling masses, that sways all the hosts of humanity past and present. Without this energizing principle all commerce, trade and industry are hushed and will perish from this earth as surely as the crimson sunset follows the golden sunshine. Mark you, I do not seek to unduly alarm or distress the mothers, fathers, sons and daughters gathered before me in this vast assemblage, but I would indeed be recreant to a high resolve which I made as a youth if I did not at this time and in this place, and with the full realizing sense of responsibility which I assume, publicly declare and affirm my dedication and my consecration to the eternal principles and receipts of simple, ordinary, commonplace justice. 1 The proper evaluation of this speech should be. The name appears to have become common on the publication of Montaignes Essays, a literary form created by this French writer. The essay is a literary composition of moderate length on philosophical, social, aesthetic or literary subjects. It never goes deep into the subject, but merely touches upon the surface. Personality in the treatment of theme and naturalness of expression are two of the most obvious characteristics of the essay. An essay is rather a series of personal and witty comments than a finished argument or a conclusive examination of any matter. This literary genre has definite linguistic traits which shape it as a variety of publicistic style. Here is a part of an essay by Ben Jonson which illustrates this style in its most typical and original form as it was at the end of the 16th century: Language most shows a man; speak, that I may see thee. It springs out of the most retired and inmost parts of us, and is the image of the parent of it, the mind. No glass renders a mans form or likeness so true, as his speech. Nay, it is likened to a man; and as we consider feature and composition in a man, so words in language; in the greatness, aptness, sound, structure, and harmony of it. Some men are tall and big, so some language is high and great. Then the words are chosen, the sound ample, the composition full, the absolution plenteous, and poured out, all grace, sinewy and strong. Some are little and dwarfs; so of speech, it is humble and low; the words are poor and flat; the members are periods thin and weak, without knitting or number. The middle are of just stature. There the language is plain and pleasing: even without stopping, round without swelling; all well turned, composed, eloquent, and accurate. The vicious language is vast and gaping; swelling and irregular; when it contends, high, full of rock, mountain and pointedness; as it affects to be low it is abject and creeps, full of bogs and holes. The essay was very popular in the 17th and 18th centuries. In the 17th century essays were written on topics connected with morals and ethics, while those of the 18th century focussed attention on political and philosophical problems. The 18th century was the great age of essay writing. It was then the principal literary form, and discoursed on the important subjects of the day, often criticizing the shortcomings of the political and social system in England. Encyclopedia Britannica states that the essay became a dominant force in English literature of the 18th century. The following statement of an 18th century essayist is of some interest as it describes the character of the essay: We writers of essays or (as they are termed) periodical papers This statement shows that periodical papers at that time contained only essays. In the 19th century the essay as a literary term gradually changed into what we now call the journalistic article or feature article which 293 covers all kinds of subjects from politics, philosophy or aesthetics to travel, sport and fashions. Feature articles are generally published in newspapers, especially weeklies and Sunday editions. They are often written by one and the same writer or journalist, who has cultivated his own individual style. The most characteristic language features of the essay, however, remain 1) brevity of expression, reaching in good writers a degree of epigrammaticalness, 2) the use of the first person singular, which justifies a personal approach to the problems treated, 3) a rather expanded use of connectives, which facilitate the process of grasping the correlation of ideas, 4) the abundant use of emotive words, 5) the use of similes and sustained metaphors as one of the media for the cognitive process. It is in the interrelation of these constituents that the real secret of the essay substyle consists. Some essays, depending on the writers individuality, are written in a highly emotional manner resembling the style of emotive prose, others resemble scientific prose, and the terms review, memÐ ¾ir or treatise are more applicable to certain more exhaustive studies. 1 The essay on moral and philosophical topics in modern times has not been so popular, perhaps because a deeper scientific analysis and interpretation of facts is required. The essay in our days is often biographical; persons, facts and events are taken from life. These essays differ from those of previous enturies — their vocabulary is simpler and so is their logical structure and argumentation. But they still retain all the leading features of the publicistic style. In comparison with oratorical style, the essay aims at a more lasting, hence, at a slower effect. Epigrams, paradoxes and aphorisms are comparatively rare in oratory, as they require the concentrated attention of the listener. In the essay they are co mmoner, for the reader has opportunity to make a careful and detailed study both of the content of the utterance and its form.

Friday, March 6, 2020

Essay Questions Unit 1

Essay Questions Unit 1 Essay Questions Unit 1 Effective communication is fundamental in developing positive relationships with children, young people and adults, whilst maintaining a happy and calm environment and a supportive attitude. Children, young people and adults should be spoken to in a calm and supporting way, they should not be stereotyped or judged on gender, race or ability. All groups should be talked to in a non prejudiced manner, using language that they can understand. Children can sometimes have issues with confidence and trust; by gently praising them in a clear and positive manner, whilst giving supportive instructions and encouragement face to face at their level, trust can be gained and the child will feel confident to communicate back to you. The same applies with young people; as children get older and become more mature they are given more responsibilities. At this stage maintaining a positive relationship is very important; they can discuss concerns that they may have with you or turn to you in a crisis or during a difficulty. Adults need to be spoken to as equals, using language that is not disparaging or judgemental. Effective communication builds trust and trust is the building block for all positive relationships. In schools we need to be able to give and receive information to resolve conflict, get others to carry out tasks, follow instructions and negotiate. 2 Explain the principles of relationship building with children, young people and adults. Building a relationship with a child or young person involves developing relationships with their peers as well as significant adults. Adults need to be positive role models to children as children observe the behaviour of adults, which in turn effects the child’s behaviour and how children deal with their own feelings, other peoples feelings and day to day situations. Interacting positively with other adults and children, encourages children to demonstrate appropriate behaviour and social skills. The acronym SPECIAL reminds us that children need security, praise, encouragement, communication, interaction, acceptance, and love to build a positive relationship. Security provides a child with a feeling of safety. Praise and encouragement which will promote happiness and confidence in a child. Communication and interaction are fundamental in building a relationship as they enable a child to trust you. Children must be communicated and interacted with in a way that is appropriate to their age, ability and needs, and at their level so they feel equal. Acceptance and love also build confidence and are qualities which will be mirrored by children if they are accepted and loved by others. Limits should be set and firm boundaries made with children, families, colleagues and other professionals to build a relationship. Relationships with other adults in a school setting could be with parents or work colleagues. Building relationships with parents requires many of the principles needed in building relationships with children, primarily communication and interaction, but more importantly is listening; if a parent has any concerns or questions, an empathic, supportive attitude is paramount for building an adult relationship. Avoid using technical language or words they may not understand. The ability to identify and resolve conflicts or disagreements are principles of building relationships with young people and adults. It is important to adapt our style of communica tion to deal with different age groups; when speaking with a parent or work colleague it is important to use appropriate language, acknowledge them and not hold any prejudices. Many schools have a form of home-school agreement which outlines what each party should do (parent/guardian and the school). This type of agreement is signed by both parties and builds a supportive relationship with firm boundaries from the onset. 3 explain how social background affects relationships and the way people communicate. Social background can affect a

Wednesday, February 19, 2020

Nursing research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 58

Nursing research - Essay Example Nonetheless, staff should always ensure that they remained updated on the changes in technology and standards in order to adjust their practice in line with the new technology and standards, which effectively improves the quality of care. I consider poster presentations as an important way of communicating information. In line with this, posters are  an important aid to present the essence of a topic. Importantly, a combination of visual aids and a verbal presentation smooth the progress of communicating scientific ideas in a poster. However, the graphics, which is the poster presentation’s visual aid, attracts my attention. Consequently, I use graphics in a poster presentation to ensure that I drew the attention of people to the poster. However, I have to ensure that the graphics are unique in order attract the attention while also holding the attention. Moreover, I ensure that the graphics on the poster are relevant and increase the understanding of the message